Tuesday, May 26, 2020
One could think of a number of ways that someone could cut back on fuel consumption in response to higher prices. For example, people can carpool when going to work or school, go to the supermarket and the post office in one trip instead of two, and so on. In this discussion, the factor being debated is the price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Price elasticity of demand for gas refers to the hypothetical situation if gas prices rise, what will happen to the quantity demanded for gasoline? To answer this question, lets delve into a brief overview of 2 meta-analyses of studies of the price elasticity of gasoline. Studies on Gasoline Price ElasticityÃ There are many studies that researched and determined what the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is. One such study is aÃ meta-analysis by Molly Espey, published inÃ Energy Journal,Ã which explains the variation in elasticity estimates of gasoline demand in the United States. In the study, Espey examined 101 different studies and found that in the short-run (defined as 1 year or less), the average price-elasticity of demand for gasoline is -0.26. That is, a 10% hike in the price of gasoline lowers quantity demanded by 2.6%. In the long-run (defined as longer than 1 year), the price elasticity of demand is -0.58. Meaning, a 10% hike in gasoline causes quantity demanded to decline by 5.8% in the long run. Review of Income and Price Elasticities in the Demand for Road Traffic Another terrific meta-analysis was conducted by Phil Goodwin, Joyce Dargay and Mark Hanly and given the title Review of Income and Price Elasticities in the Demand for Road Traffic. In it, they summarize their findings on the price elasticity of demand for gasoline. If the real price of fuel goes, and stays, up by 10%, the result is a dynamic process of adjustment such that the following 4 scenarios occur. First, the volume of traffic will go down by roundly 1% within about a year, building up to a reduction of about 3% in the longer run (about 5 years or so). Second, the volume of fuel consumed will go down by about 2.5% within a year, building up to a reduction of over 6% in the longer run. Third, the reason why fuel consumed goes down by more than the volume of traffic, is probably because price increases trigger more efficient use of fuel (by a combination of technical improvements to vehicles, more fuel conserving driving styles, and driving in easier traffic conditions). So further consequences of the same price increase include the following 2 scenarios. The efficiency of use of fuel going up by about 1.5% within a year, and around 4% in the longer run. Also, the total number of vehicles owned goes down by less than 1% in the short run, and 2.5% in the longer run. Standard Deviation Its important to note that the realized elasticities depend on factors such as the timeframe and locations that the study covers. Taking the second study, for example, the realized drop in quantity demanded in the short run from a 10% rise in fuel costs may be greater or lower than 2.5%. While the short-run the price elasticity of demand is -0.25, there is a standard deviation of 0.15, while the long rise price elasticity of -0.64 has a standard deviation of -0.44. Concluded Effect of Rise in Gas Prices While one cannot say with absolute certainty what the magnitude rise in gas taxes will have on quantity demanded, it can be reasonably assured that a rise in gas taxes, all else being equal, will cause consumption to decrease.
Friday, May 15, 2020
According to Malthus, Economic Growth leads directly to population growth, and the latter tends to be more rapid than the former. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ principle appears to have held for the pre-industrial world for millennia. However, the industrialising capitalist countries of Europe experienced low population growth rates during the 20th Century, in spite of their high economic growth rates. Why did MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ principle fail to apply in this case? Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was a famous Economist, famous for his work on population growth, including Ã¢â¬Å"An Essay of the Principle of Population.Ã¢â¬ This principle explained MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ views, that population growth would offset any increases in technological advances and therefore economic growth would equal zero. Consequently, due to the different rates of population growth and the growth of the food supply, Malthus believed that the food supply would not have to ability to facilitate the entire population. It is believed that this principle has held for the pre-industrial world, from the beginning of the human race until the 18th century, this period is also known as the Era of Stagnation or the Malthusian Era. However history has indicated that after the 18th century some countries begun to industrialise and experienced positive growth rates and low population growth rates, thus affecting MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ principle. To effectively analyse why MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ pr inciple failed to apply after the 18th century it is important to specifically look at howShow MoreRelatedOpositions to Thomas Malthus Theory on Population Growth 694 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThomas Malthus was an early 19th century English scholar who specializes in political economy and demographics. One of his most well-known and influential works Ã¢â¬ËAn Essay on the Principle of Population argued that the increase in population growth would ultimately create social and economic problems for a nation. On the contrary, many famous political economists such as Ester Boserup and Julian Simon suggested different views about population and resource growth; which contradicts the MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ theoryRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution And The Public Health Revolution1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Since our origin, worldwide human population has steadily been on the rise. We humans emerged as a species about 200,000 years ago. In geological time, that is really incredibly recent. Just 10,000 years ago, there were one million of us. By 1800, just over 200 years ago, there were 1 billion of us. By 1960, 50 years ago, there were 3 billion of us. There are now over 7 billion of us. By 2050, your children, or your children s children, will be living on a planet with at least 9 billion otherRead MoreEssay on Thomas Malthus and the Principle of Population1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Introduction This essay deals with Thomas Malthus and the first two chapters of his Ã¢â¬Å"Essay on the Principle of PopulationÃ¢â¬ . At first I will provide a short biographical note on Malthus and I will also mention his main achievements. Then, a summary of Malthus main ideas of the first two chapters of mentioned work follows. Afterward, the essay concludes with a personal note. 2. A short biography Thomas Robert Malthus was born in 1766 (course textbook, n. d.) in Surrey, England, as the sixthRead MoreThomas Robert Malthus Essays565 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMalthus Thomas Robert Malthus was a well-known economist as well as a clergyman. He was born on February 13th, 1766, in Surrey, England, and was the sixth of seven children. Malthus attended Cambridge in 1784 and graduated four years later with honors in mathematics. In 1789, Malthus became a deacon in the Church of England and curate of Okewood Chapel in Surrey. In 1798, he anonymously published his renowned work An Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future ImprovementRead MoreThe Principle Of Population By Thomas Malthus1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEssay One Thomas Malthus 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population, Chapter 1 Thomas Malthus was an English philosopher who lived from 1766 to 1834, An Essay on the Principle of Population, is one of the most influential pieces of writing in history. Not only did it help to establish the modern field of economics, it aided Charles Darwin on his regarding evolutionary science. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ core argument that runs a majority of the book is dedicated to the Ã¢â¬ËIron Law of PopulationÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay willRead MoreEssay on Thomas Malthus Section Summary1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThomas Malthus Section Summary MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ work, Essay on the Principle of Population, is often cited, first by Darwin himself, to have influenced DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of the theory of natural selection. His work, though unpopular, and often proven to be off the mark, did in fact bring to the forefront many socio-economic issues that are still being debated today: population control, food production and concerns over uncontrollable diseases arising from the effects of over-population. In this passageRead More Thomas Malthuss overpopulation theory Essay1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages A little over two hundred years ago a man by the name of Thomas Malthus wrote a document entitled Ã¢â¬Å"An Essay on the Principle of PopulationÃ¢â¬ which essentially stated that there is an imbalance between our ability to produce food and our ability to produce children. He said human beings are far better at making babies than they are at finding food for survival. His entire essay is based on these two assumptions. Ã¢â ¬Å" First, That food is necessary to the existence of man. And second, that the passionRead MoreReality And Malthus Predictions Of Population992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReality and MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ Predictions of Population Imagine if EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s population was so large that all of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources had to be exhausted to their last limits just to provide food for only half of the population. That is exactly what 17th-century demographer Thomas Malthus envisioned when he predicted how the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population would affect the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. In An Essay on the Principle of Population, published in the late 18th century, Malthus expressed many controversial predictionsRead MoreDarwins Theory of Evolution Essay702 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUniformitarianism. He was the author of Principles of Geology. His theory was that earth must be very old and that throughout time the planet has undergone processes that change the shape the land. That includes erosion, earthquakes, glacial movements, volcanoes, and the decomposition of dead plants and animals. (Port, 2006) Thomas Robert Malthus was born on February 13th, 1766, at Dorking, a town south of London. His theory about population was that population growth usually exceeds the amount of foodRead MoreThe Between Science, Policy And Sustainability1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1 Introduction The notion that there are limits to growth is not new to science. The debate that exponential population growth and economic growth, coupled with natural resources depletion, cannot be sustained has started already a few centuries ago with a ground-breaking publication: Ã¢â¬Å"Essay on the principle of populationÃ¢â¬ Thomas Malthus in 1798. With more scientific knowledge developed around this debate, a reverse strategy was formed on the international political agenda called Sustainable Development
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Growing up and becoming mature can be an intimidating experience; it is difficult to let go of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood and embrace the adult world. For some people, this transition from youthfulness to maturity can be much more difficult than for others. These people often try to hold on to their childhood as long as they can. Unfortunately, life is not so simple. One cannot spend their entire life running from the responsibilities and hardships of adulthood because they will eventually have to accept the fact that they have a role in society that they must fulfill as a responsible, mature individual. The novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ by J.D. Salinger follows the endeavours of Holden Caulfield, a sixteen-year-old teenage boy who faces a point inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Holden knows that these children are unaware of the stress and difficulties that come along with adulthood, and believes that they should be saved from these things. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of growing up is shown even here, as he stands right on the edge of the cliff saving these children, but is unwilling to fall off the cliff and enter adulthood himself. This, being one of the most important and memorable quotes of the book, is perhaps the most significant evidence of the fact that the title of the book explores the theme of innocence preservation. Therefore, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s affection for the innocence and purity of children undoubtedly has a connection to his reluctance to grow up, and to his desire to become a Ã¢â¬Å"catcher in the ryeÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, his attitude towards change is also a large factor in his attempts to resist maturity. Holden is very hostile towards the idea of change. He is bothered by the fact that things are always changing, and he constantly tries his best to avoid change so he can stay in his own ideal world. His attempts to prevent change show that he wants to preserve his innocence. One way in which Holden tries to divert away from his transition and avoid change is by visiting the museum, where Ã¢â¬Å"everything always stayed right where it was. NobodyÃ¢â¬â¢d moveÃ¢â¬ ¦ NobodyÃ¢â¬â¢d be different. The only thing that would be different would be you.Ã¢â¬ (Salinger 121).Show MoreRelatedChildhood Innocence is Everything in Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother always told them that childhood innocence is the best thing in the world, but for Holden it is the world. When reading The Catcher in the Rye some people disdain Holden, because they think heÃ¢â¬â¢s cynical and immature, but really he is a representation of us all. Unlike other bo oks, the protagonist isnÃ¢â¬â¢t someone you want to be friends with, itÃ¢â¬â¢s someone you realize you are. The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s chronicle of running away from his boarding school and livingRead MoreCatcher in the Rye vs Frankenstein Novel Study Essay1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIndependent Novel Study In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, innocence cannot be preserved forever. As humans age, they lose their innocence due to the corruption that exists in society. This is demonstrated in the two novels, Catcher in the Rye and Frankenstein. The two authors, J.D. Salinger and Mary Shelley prove this statement through their use of various literary devices. Key characters in both novels- Holden and the creature- learn through personal experiences that innocence cannot, in fact, be preserved foreverRead More The Catcher and the Rye / Huckleberry Finn Essay1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s dictionary defines innocence as, Ã¢â¬Å"Freedom from harmfulness; inoffensiveness.Ã¢â¬ Although this definition is the one which is most commonly used, many authors tend to twist or stretch the meaning in order to fit the material to which it applies. For example, the way J.D Salinger applies innocence to his work is quite different from the way Mark Twain uses innocence. Innocence also change s accordingly with the time period. The definition of innocence is dynamic with respect to author andRead MoreThe Catcher Of The Rye By F. Salinger1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs a Ã¢â¬Å"gateway drug for a generation of teenagers,Ã¢â¬ Jerome David SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Catcher in the Rye, is a world-renowned phenomenon (Teicholz). On the surface it highlights a teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s mentally challenging journey of painfully trying to transition into adulthood, while also wanting to reject the adult world and seek refuge in his idealistic childhood recollections. However, these ideas can be analyzed on a deeper level, not only to better understand the protagonist, Holden Caulfield, but alsoRead MoreCatcher Rye And Perfect Day For Bananafish1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Catcher in The Rye and Perfect Day For Bananafish In Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ ,by J.D Salinger, Holden Caulfield, a troubled 16 year old boy who constantly gets kicked out of every school takes it upon himself to become Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ , in reality not being real occupation but an idea he chose to adopt for himself after he heard a little boy singing in the street. The catcher in the Rye can be described in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective as a person, almost like a hero that helps childrenRead MoreTheme Of Symbolism In Catcher In The Rye1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages10 Hour 2 6 December 2017 The Catcher in the Rye: Prompt 3 In the novel, Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger uses a variety of symbols to support the thematic idea that maturation and the loss of innocence are an inescapable rite of passage for all of humanity. Three significant symbols that signify the importance of alteration and losing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s purity to become more suited to live in the real world are the ducks in the lagoon of Central Park, the Ã¢â¬Å"Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ , and the carousel and the goldRead MoreCatcher and the Rye Essay1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexciting novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger expresses the free will of choice. Salinger cleverly conveys how decisions can alter a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of their peer. Holden Caulfield, the protagonist, is a young teenager who has emotional instability and behavioral concerns. Holden acts immaturely extensively throughout the book. Holden invents a world where adulthood is the emblem of superficiality and Ã¢â¬Å"phoninessÃ¢â¬ , while he chooses to co nvey childhood as a world of innocence. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s observationRead MoreHow SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Holden Caulfield Relates to Teenagers Throughout Time1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Holden Caulfield Relates to Teenagers Throughout Time In 1951, J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye was #1 on the New York TimeÃ¢â¬â¢s bestseller list. Since then, the American Literary Association claims The Catcher in the Rye is a Ã¢â¬Å"favorite of censors.Ã¢â¬ The use of harsh language and profanity has been a long time debate of educators causing the novel to be pulled off bookshelves and propelling J.D. Salinger and his protagonist, Holden Caulfield, into reluctant fame. The translationRead MoreThe Themes of The Catcher in the Rye840 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesConsidered one of the best novels of the 20th century, The Catcher in the Rye has affected readers around the globe since its publication in 1951. Its contemporary critics, however, gave the novel mixed reviews. Compared to the ideals of 1950s America, Holden Caulfield, the emotionally immature, extremely judgmental, teen-aged main character of Ã¢â¬Å"Catcher,Ã¢â¬ embodies the antithesis. Holden was an affront to the new social order, which demanded conf ormity and propagated the Ã¢â¬Å"father knows bestÃ¢â¬ mentalityRead More Catcher in the Rye Essay: Holden - The Misfit Hero2101 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Misfit Hero of The Catcher In The Rye Ã Ã Ã Ã The Catcher In The Rye by J.D. Salinger was published in 1951. A recurring theme in J.D. Salingers stories concerns people who dont fit in with the traditional American Culture. Salingers misfit heroes, unlike the rest of society, are caught in the struggle between a superficial world and a conscious morality (1 Wildermuth). In his attempt to create a new and realistic portrayal of the times, Salinger first, effectively creates Holden Caulfield
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
To inform the audience about how small sacrifices today can result in huge dividends in retirement. Thesis: Today I will inform the audience of the power of saving small amounts of money for the future and how compound interest works in their favor when they start saving as soon as possible. Organizational Pattern: Topical Introduction A. Attention Getter Who wants to be a millionaire? You can be!!! Social Security will very likely NOT be available to people currently younger than 40 and if it does survive will not be a significant amount to live on. How we prepare NOW can determine whether we are world travelers or Walmart greeters. C. Credibility My father impressed upon me the need for financial planning. I began saving when I first started working at 17 and have benefitted greatly. D. Thesis Today I will show how anyone can have a rewarding future by making small and often unnoticed sacrifices currently. We will write a custom essay sample on Financial Planning or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page E. Preview Specifically, I will discuss retirement saving strategies including 401K matching programs from employees and IRAÃ¢â¬â¢s. Transition First I will discuss the expediency of saving at an early age. I. Body A. When to start saving for retirement? 1. The earlier the better. Due to the exponential nature of compound interest the longer the money remains the more significant the growth 2. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never too late to start saving for retirement. The problem is the longer you wait the more impact on your budget due to having to save a higher percentage of your current income. If you start saving early your impact is minimized greatly. Transition Next, I will discuss the various ways to save for retirement. 1. 401K plans offer you the chance to deduct monies from your paycheck either before taxes are deducted or afterward. Each option has tax 2. advantages but their impact is geared toward current tax savings or tax savings during retirement. The real opportunity in 401K is the employee match program where your employer invests the same amount into your account, usually up to a certain percentage. . Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) are another way to save for retirement. They can be used independently or in conjunction with a 401K plan. Funds are deposited after taxes have been withheld so there is no tax due upon withdrawal in retirement. IRA contributions can be withdrawn without penalty if you face a financial hardship such as losing your home or significant medical bills. Transition My final point is a strategy that can meet your goal while minimizing impact on your current lifestyle. 1. Many of you are working toward new careers and excited about that first REAL paycheck. 2. If you Ã¢â¬Å"forgetÃ¢â¬ about the percentage of your check that is going into the 401K and structure your budget on the remaining amount you will find saving easy and rewarding. 3. Begin with 3% of your pay going into retirement savings. Each raise/promotion you get increase it by 1% until you have reached your employerÃ¢â¬â¢s maximum match rate. Then add the 1% into an IRA until you have reached the percentage that results in your desired retirement account. I have discussed when to start saving for retirement, various ways to save as well as methods for minimizing the impact on your current budget. B. I trust that now you are more informed about the rewards available in the future when you start saving now and have obtained information about ways to achieve your goals. References Ira online resource guide.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Backs .In conversation, a back-channel signal is a noise, gesture, expression, or word used by a listener to indicate that he or she is paying attention to a speaker. According to H.M. Rosenfeld (1978), the most common back-channel signals are head movements, brief vocalizations, glances, and facial expressions, often in combination. Examples and Observations Fabienne: I was looking at myself in the mirror.Butch Coolidge: Uh-huh?Fabienne: I wish I had a pot.Butch Coolidge: You were lookin in the mirror and you wish you had some pot?Fabienne: A pot. A pot belly. Pot bellies are sexy.(Pulp Fiction, 1994)We .. show we are listening and do not wish to interrupt by giving back-channel signals, such as yes, uh-huh, mhm, and other very short comments. These do not constitute turns or attempts to take the floor. On the contrary, they are indications that we expect the speaker to continue.(R. Macaulay, The Social Art: Language and Its Uses. Oxford University Press, 2006)Karen Pelly: Brent might learn a little lesson if his security camera got stolen.Hank Yarbo: Yeah.Karen Pelly: By someone.Hank Yarbo: Hmm.Karen Pelly: Someone he trusts.Hank Yarbo: Yeah, I suppose.Karen Pelly: Someone he would never suspect.Hank Yarbo: Yeah.Karen Pelly: Plot the cameras motion and approach from a blind spot. You could pull it off.(Security Cam, Corner Gas, 2004) Facial Expressions and Head Movements The face plays an important role in the communication process. A smile can express happiness, be a polite greeting, or be a back-channel signal. Some facial expressions are linked to the syntax structure of the utterance: eyebrows may raise on an accent and on nonsyntactically marked questions. Gaze and head movements are also part of the communicative process. (J. Cassell, Embodied Conversational Agents. MIT Press, 2000)And here Mrs. Aleshine nodded vigorously, not being willing to interrupt this entrancing story.(Frank R. Stockton, The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine, 1892) A Group Process Turn-taking and suppressing signals are given by the current speaker; they are used to defend the right to continue speaking on the same subject or with the same level of emphasis. Ã¢â¬â¹Back-channel signals are communication acts by others, such as a person agreeing or disagreeing with the speaker. The types of signal and the rate at which they are used relate to the underlying group process, particularly the group regulatory forces. Meyers and Brashers (1999) found that groups use a form of participation reward system; those who are co-operating with the group receive helping communication behaviors and those in competition are received with communication-blocking behavior. (Stephen Emmitt and Christopher Gorse, Construction Communication. Blackwell, 2003)
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
The Battle of Dogger Bank - World War I The Battle of Dogger Bank was fought January 24, 1915, during World War I (1914-1918). The opening months of World War I saw the Royal Navy quickly assert its dominance around the world. Taking to the offensive soon after the beginning of hostilities, British forces won the Battle of Heligoland Bight in late August. Elsewhere, a surprise defeat atÃ Coronel, off the coast of Chile, in early November was quickly avenged a month later at theÃ Battle of the Falklands.Ã Seeking to regain the initiative, Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, commander of the German High Sea Fleet, approved a raid on the British coast for December 16. Moving forward, this saw Rear Admiral Franz Hipper bombard Scarborough,Ã Hartlepool, and Whitby, killing 104 civilians and injuring 525. Though the Royal Navy attempted to intercept Hipper as he withdrew, it was unsuccessful. The raid caused widespread public outrage in Britain and led to fears of future attacks. Seeking to build on this success, Hipper began lobbying for another sortie with the goal of striking at the British fishing fleet near Dogger Bank. This was motivated by his belief that fishing vessels were reporting the movements of German warships to the Admiralty allowing the Royal Navy to anticipate the operations of the Kaiserliche Marine. Commencing planning, Hipper intended to move forward with the attack in January 1915. In London, the Admiralty was aware of the of the impending German raid, though this information was received through radio intercepts that were decoded by Naval Intelligences Room 40 rather than reports from fishing vessels. These decryption activities were made possible by using German code books which had been captured earlier by the Russians. Fleets Commanders: British Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty5 battlecruisers, 7 light cruisers, 35 destroyers German Rear Admiral Franz Hipper3 battlecruisers, 1 armored cruiser, 4 light cruisers, 18 destroyers The Fleet Sail Putting to sea, Hipper sailed with the 1st Scouting Group consisting of the battlecruisers SMS Seydlitz (flagship), SMS Moltke, SMS Derfflinger, and the armored cruiser SMS BlÃ ¼cher. These ships were supported by the four light cruisers of the 2nd Scouting Group and eighteen torpedo boats. Learning that Hipper was at sea on January 23, the Admiralty directed Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty to immediately sail from Rosyth with the 1st and 2nd Battlecruiser Squadrons which were comprised of HMS Lion (flagship), HMS Tiger, HMS Princess Royal, HMS New Zealand, and HMS Indomitable. These capital ships were joined by the four light cruisers of the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron as well as three light cruisers and thirty-five destroyers from the Harwich Force. Battle Joined Steaming south through good weather, Beatty encountered Hippers screening vessels shortly after 7:00 AM on January 24. Approximately half an hour later, the German admiral spotted the smoke from the approaching British ships. Realizing that it was a large enemy force, Hipper turned southeast and attempted to escape back to Wilhelmshaven. This was hampered by the older BlÃ ¼cher which was not as fast as his more modern battlecruisers. Pressing forward, Beatty was able to see the German battlecruisers at 8:00 AM and began moving into a position to attack. This saw the British ships approach from behind and to the starboard of the Hipper. Beatty chose this line of approach as it allowed the wind to blow funnel and gun smoke clear from his ships, while the German vessels would partially be blinded. Charging forward at speeds of over twenty-five knots, Beattys ships closed the gap with the Germans. At 8:52 AM, Lion opened fire at a range of around 20,000 yards and was soon followed by the other British battlecruisers. As the battle began, Beatty intended for his lead three ships to engage their German counterparts while New Zealand and Indomitable targeted BlÃ ¼cher. This failed to occur as Captain H.B. Pelly of Tiger instead focused his ships fire on Seydlitz. As a result, Moltke was left uncovered and was able to return fire with impunity. At 9:43 AM, Lion struck Seydlitz causing an ammunition fire in the ships aft turret barbette. This knocked both aft turrets out of action and only the prompt flooding of Seydlitzs magazines saved the ship. An Opportunity Missed Approximately half an hour later, Derfflinger began scoring hits on Lion. These caused flooding and engine damage which slowed the ship. Continuing to take hits, Beattys flagship began to list to port and was effectively put out of action after being struck by fourteen shells. As Lion was being pummeled, Princess Royal scored a critical hit on BlÃ ¼cher which damaged its boilers and started an ammunition fire. This led to the ship slowing and falling further behind Hippers squadron. Outnumbered and short on ammunition, Hipper elected to abandon BlÃ ¼cher and increased speed in an effort to escape. Though his battlecruisers were still gaining on the Germans, Beatty ordered a ninety-degree turn to port at 10:54 AM after reports of a submarine periscope. Realizing this turn would allow the enemy to escape, he revised his order to a forty-five-degree turn. As Lions electrical system was damaged, Beatty was forced to relay this revision via signal flags. Desiring his ships to continue after Hipper, he ordered Course NE (for the forty-five-degree turn) and Engage the Enemys Rear to be hoisted. Seeing the signal flags, Beattys second-in-command, Rear Admiral Gordon Moore, misinterpreted the message as BlÃ ¼cher lay to the northeast. Aboard New Zealand, Moore took Beattys signal to mean that the fleet should focus its efforts against the stricken cruiser. Relaying this incorrect message, Moore broke off the pursuit of Hipper and the British ships attacked BlÃ ¼cher in earnest. Seeing this, Beatty attempted to correct the situation by hoisting a variation of Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelsons famed Engage the Enemy More Closely signal, but Moore and the other British ships were too far away to see the flags. As a result, the assault on BlÃ ¼cher was pressed home while Hipper successfully slipped away. Though the damaged cruiser managed to disable the destroyer HMS Meteor, it finally succumbed to British fire and was finished off by two torpedoes from the light cruiser HMS Arethusa. Capsizing at 12:13 PM, BlÃ ¼cher began to sink as British ships closed to rescue survivors. These efforts were broken off when a German seaplane and the Zeppelin L-5 arrived on scene and began dropping small bombs at the British. The Aftermath Unable to catch Hipper, Beatty withdrew back to Britain. As Lion was disabled, it was towed to port by Indomitable. The fighting at Dogger Bank cost Hipper 954 killed, 80 wounded, and 189 captured. In addition, BlÃ ¼cher was sunk and Seydlitz severely damaged. For Beatty, the engagement saw Lion and Meteor crippled as well as 15 sailors killed and 32 wounded. Hailed as a victory in Britain, Dogger Bank had severe consequences in Germany. Concerned about the potential loss of capital ships, Kaiser Wilhelm II issued orders stating that all risks to surface vessels were to be avoided. Also, von Ingenohl was replaced as commander of the High Seas Fleet by Admiral Hugo von Pohl. Perhaps more importantly, in the wake of the fire on Seydlitz, the Kaiserliche Marine examined how magazines were protected and ammunition handled aboard its warships. Improving both, their ships were better prepared for future battles. Having won the battle, the British failed to address similar issues aboard their battlecruisers, an omission that would have disastrous consequences at the Battle of Jutland the following year.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Diversity interview - Assignment Example The obvious differences between us is the manner we practice our faith. I am a Catholic while Cyrus is a Muslim. We also have gender differences, he is male while I am female. We also have generational differences with him belonging to Generation X while I belong to Generation Y. Cyrus and I enjoyed talking about our adjustment here in the USA especially when he narrated the funny things he did just to fit in and to some extent, the cultural shock he experienced. I am most comfortable with this topic because this is funny and not sensitive to talk about. The aspect that is least comfortable for me to talk about him was religion. Before asking about it, I had to explain myself at length that this is for a diversity class and that I do not mean to be offensive, and that if I already am, he could interrupt me anytime during the interview. I am not comfortable with the topic of religion because I do not want to be offensive to Cyrus especially that I am a Catholic. I do not want our differences cause friction between us because is such a nice man. You see, Catholic launched a crusade against Islam during the Middle Age and this makes the topic touchy. The most important insight I develop is that our fears and anxiety about Muslims are baseless. For example, I was not comfortable talking about religion especially comparing Catholicism and Islam and that he might still be hooked with the idea of the Crusade. To my surprise however, he is more eager to talk about it and is more conciliatory than I am. Just like the most of us, he does not want to make religion an issue that divides people. He also worries about terrorism in the same manner that we worry about it. This relates to our discussion of our diversity in a manner that our seeming differences after all are not insurmountable if only we keep an open line of communication and if we are willing to talk about it. In talking to